# Weights & Measures

## Troy weight

 24 grains = 1 pennyweight 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce (480 grains) 12 ounces = 1 pound (5760 grains)

Diamonds and pearls are weighed by Carats of 4 grains each (equivalent to 3.2 Troy grains).

The Troy ounce is equal to 150 Diamond Carats.

Gold, when pure, is rated as 24 carats fine; one part alloy makes it 23 carats fine, and so on.

## Avoirdupois weight

 16 drams = 1 ounce (437.5 grains Troy) 16 ounces (oz) = 1 pound (7000 grains Troy) 14 pounds (lb) = 1 stone 28 pounds = 1 quarter 4 quarters = 1 hundredweight (112 pounds) 20 hundredweights (cwt) = 1 ton (2240 pounds)

Avoirdupois weight was used for all general merchandise

## Apothecaries weight

 20 grains = 1 scruple 3 scruples = 1 dram 8 drams = 1 ounce 12 ounces = 1 pound

Used for dispensing drugs, etc.

## Wool weight

 14 pounds = 1 stone 2 stones = 1 tod 6.5 tods = 1 wey 2 weys = 1 sack (3.5 cwt) 12 sacks = 1 last (29 cwt)

In foreign markets, the pack of 240 pound was common. This was useful because the price in pounds sterling per sack was the same as the price in pence per pound weight.

In some parts of England and Scotland the stone of 24 pounds was sometimes used. In Ireland, the stone was commonly 16 pounds.

## Measures of length

### Linear measure

 12 inches = 1 foot 3 feet = 1 yard 5.5 yards = 1 rod, pole or perch 4 poles = 1 chain 10 chains = 1 furlong 8 furlongs = 1 mile 3 miles = 1 league

### Surveyors' measure

 7.92 inches = 1 link 100 links = 1 chain 80 chains = 1 mile 10 square chains = 1 acre

### Square measure

 144 square inches = 1 square foot 9 square feet = 1 square yard 30.25 square yards = 1 square pole 40 square poles = 1 rood 4 roods = 1 acre 640 acres = 1 square mile

### Solid or cubic measure

 1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot 27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard 5 cubic feet = 1 barrel bulk shipping 40 cubic feet = 1 ton shipping 40 cubic feet = 1 load hard timber 50 cubic feet = 1 load foreign fir

### Capacity

 4 gills = 1 pint = 34 cu.in. (approx.) 2 pints = 1 quart = 69 cu.in. (approx.) 4 quarts = 1 gallon = 277.25 cu.in. (approx.) 2 gallons = 1 peck = 544.5 cu.in. (approx.) 4 pecks = 1 bushel = 2218.5 cu.in. (approx.) 8 bushels = 1 quarter = 10.25 cu.ft. (approx.) 5 quarters = 1 load = 51 cu.ft. (approx.) 36 bushels = 1 chaldron = 46 cu.ft. (approx.)

A bushel of wheat weighs on average 60 pounds

A bushel of barley weighs on average 47 pounds

A bushel of oats weighs on average 40 pounds

A gallon of distilled water weighs 10 pounds

### Yarn measure (linen)

 300 yards = 1 cut 2 cuts = 1 heer 6 heers = 1 hank 4 hanks = 1 spindle

### Yarn measure (cotton)

 120 yards = 1 skein 7 skeins = 1 hank 18 hanks = 1 spindle

### Cloth measure

 2.25 inches = 1 nail 4 nails = 1 quarter 4 quarters = 1 yard 5 quarters = 1 ell

### Paper measure (writing paper)

 24 sheets = 1 quire 20 quires = 1 ream

### Paper measure (printing paper)

 21.5 quires (516 sheets) = 1 ream 2 reams = 1 bundle 5 bundles = 1 bale